Michigan Literacy Crisis Explored in New Documentary from WKAR

WKAR Public Media (East Lansing) has debuted a new documentary, Right to Read, which presents the moving story of Michigan families attempting to secure the right to read for their children.  Faced with challenging circumstances — like social inequity, Michigan’s Read by Grade Three law, and limited access to books — parents, educators and experts weigh in on how to solve the literacy crisis in Michigan. Their goal?  To encourage the joy of reading and promote childhood literacy at home.

Right to Read premiered June 3 and will air 7 more times through early July.

“The documentary gives us an intimate view into the difficult work families are faced with accessing reading proficiency for their children,” said Robin Pizzo, WKAR director of education. “The state is experiencing huge gaps in literacy, causing a decrease in achievement across the system — but there are solutions and Right to Read places a spotlight on them.”

Among those offering their views during the documentary are Dorinda Carter, professor and chairperson in the department of teacher education at Michigan State University; Rep. Amanda Price, former representative from Holland, Mich.; LaDonna Mask, principal at Kendon Elementary School in Lansing, Mich.; and parents from across the mid-Michigan community.

Production of the documentary took place through the COVID-19 pandemic, following all health and safety protocols and restrictions. Interviews with those appearing in the film were conducted remotely, and some scenes were recorded by the program participants.

“Childhood literacy in mid-Michigan receives very little media attention,” said Nicole Zaremba, WKAR producer and director of the documentary. “It’s my hope that, after viewing the documentary, we continue to collaborate and create solutions to this crisis as a community and ask ourselves what we can do to better serve our children.”

Earlier this month, the mid-Michigan community was treated to a preview screening of the film, including a live Q and A session moderated by Pizzo with panelists Patricia Edwards, professor in the department of teacher education at Michigan State University; Michelle Nicholson, director of Early Childhood Services for Ingham Intermediate School District; and Michael Rice, state superintendent. That discussion is available for online viewing along with the film.

“We want to be 100% literate in this state, and I think the video helps us get there,” said Michael Rice, state superintendent, during the panel discussion following the preview of the film. “Wouldn’t that be an enormous accomplishment? Not simply from a pedagogical perspective, from a social justice perspective, but from an economic perspective as well.”

Right to Read has been offered to public broadcasting stations throughout Michigan and nationwide via the National Educational Telecommunications Association. See the trailer below:

Michigan Radio Partners with ARISE Detroit! to Form Community Reporting Engagement Council

Michigan Radio and ARISE Detroit! have announced that they will be working together to form a Community Reporting Engagement Council. The mission of the group is to strengthen networking with communities of color, serve as a sounding board and inform news coverage that is for and about Detroit. A key goal of the initiative is to strengthen Michigan Radio’s relationships with diverse communities throughout the city and to bring their stories and perspective to life to the station’s 800,000+ monthly listeners across the state.

The council will be made up of Detroit residents from neighborhoods throughout the city, as well as Highland Park and Hamtramck. The Community Reporting Engagement Council is expected to meet for the first time this fall.

“We are excited by this partnership with Michigan Radio,” said Luther Keith, executive director of ARISE Detroit! “This is a great opportunity to expand awareness of the efforts of hundreds of organizations and thousands of people working to improve the neighborhoods of Detroit, Hamtramck and Highland Park. Equally important, our partnership and work of the Engagement Council will be to respond to the voices and concerns of residents living in those neighborhoods.”

As part of this endeavor, Michigan Radio will also be hiring a community engagement reporter who will supplement the station’s coverage in Detroit. The community engagement reporter will work with the Community Reporting Engagement Council to better understand and address residents’ goals and help Michigan Radio produce outstanding journalism that gives community members a greater voice in public affairs.

“Michigan Radio is looking forward to building and strengthening our relationships with these diverse communities,” noted Executive Director and General Manager Steve Schram. “Michigan Radio has a history of award-winning local journalism and audience engagement. This program with the support of ARISE will allow us to deepen that connection through quality and meaningful content addressing the concerns and needs of the people of Detroit.”

Funding for this project is provided by The Community Foundation for Southeast Michigan as part of their Detroit Journalism Engagement Fund. The Fund, through its grant making program, seeks to advance quality journalism while reflecting the perspectives of diverse constituencies including people of color, women and low-income communities.

ARISE Detroit! is a nonprofit coalition of more than 400 organizations, promoting volunteerism, community activism and positive media images to create a better Detroit. A focal point of their efforts is their annual Neighborhoods Day which celebrates the work of block clubs, churches, schools, community groups and local businesses to create a better Detroit. The 15th Annual ARISE Detroit! Neighborhoods Day will be Aug. 7, 2021.

Gongwer, Kelley Cawthorne to Host Redistricting Webinar

Gongwer News Service and the multiclient lobbying firm Kelley Cawthorne will host a webinar on where Michigan’s redistricting process stands as the new Independent Citizens Redistricting Commission prepares to draw the state’s political maps for the first time.

The webinar will take place via Zoom from 2 to 3 p.m. Monday, June 21.

Persons interested in viewing the webinar can register at https://us02web.zoom.us/webinar/register/WN_q-RU1PmMQf2BT_ShlTpU6A.

“Redistricting Rundown” will feature Gongwer Staff Writer Ben Solis, who is leading Gongwer’s coverage of the redistricting process for the company, and Brian Began, a longtime political operative who was a key player in the 2011 reapportionment process, as panelists. Gongwer Executive Editor and Publisher Zach Gorchow will moderate the discussion.

This will be the first in a series of webinars Gongwer and Kelley Cawthorne will co-host on redistricting in Michigan as the process continues. Kelley Cawthorne’s clients include the Michigan Association of Broadcasters.

FCC Implements Supreme Court Order Reinstating 2017 Ownership Rule Changes, and Asks for Updating of Record of 2018 Quadrennial Review

David Oxenford - Color

David Oxenford

By: David Oxenford,
Wilkinson Barker Knauer LLP

The Newspaper Broadcast Cross-Ownership Rule is Finally Dead – And More Ownership Rule Changes – Including for Radio – Are to be Considered

Last Friday, the FCC took two actions on broadcast ownership resulting from the recent Supreme Court decision (about which we wrote here) upholding changes to the ownership rules that the FCC adopted in 2017.  Those 2017 changes (summarized here) and any additional changes to the rules, including changes to the radio ownership rules that have not been substantially reviewed since 1996, have been held up by the 2019 decision of the Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit.  That Court reversed the FCC’s 2017 decision which had relaxed many ownership rules, notably including the abolition of the newspaper-broadcast cross-ownership rule and some of the local television ownership restrictions.

The Third Circuit found that the FCC had done an inadequate job of assessing the impact of the 2017 changes (and past ownership changes) on the diversity of broadcast ownership.  Until such a historical review could be conducted, all FCC ownership proceedings were put on hold.  This hold was finally lifted by the Supreme Court’s decision reversing the Third Circuit and reinstating the 2017 FCC decision.  On Friday, the FCC issued an Order that formally reinstated the rules that had been overturned by the Third Circuit and also took some tentative steps toward restarting its regular review of broadcast ownership rules, including the local radio ownership rules that were largely unaffected by the 2017 FCC rule changes.  The FCC issued a Public Notice that asked for an update on comments they filed on the 2018 Quadrennial Review of the ownership rules (see our article here) in 2019.

Before getting to the FCC’s request for updated comments on the proposals in its 2018 Quadrennial Review, we should first look at the 2017 rule changes that the FCC reinstated in its Order released on Friday.  Perhaps the rule that has received the most publicity has been the abolition of the newspaper-broadcast cross-ownership rule.  For well over a decade, the FCC has recognized that rule was obsolete but had trouble abolishing it (see our article here wondering if the rule would outlive the daily newspapers to which it applied).  Also abolished was the radio-television cross-ownership rule, which had already been significantly watered down over the years.  The rule of eight – requiring that there be 8 independent owners and operators of TV stations in a market before two TV stations could be combined (through ownership or an LMA) – which had prevented the joint operation of TV stations in smaller markets where the economics are such that the survival of many stations depended on that kind of joint operation – was also abolished, as was the rule that attributed for ownership purposes TV stations (meaning they count as if they are commonly owned) that were doing a Joint Sales Agreement to sell more than 15% of the advertising time on another station in their market.

The absolute ban on combining two of the top four rated TV stations in a market was also eliminated – with the FCC going back to the case-by-case analysis adopted in 2017.  Finally, the FCC reinstated a presumption that would allow radio stations licensed to communities in “embedded markets” defined by Arbitron to be  counted only for ownership purposes in the embedded market in which they are located (and not in the parent market as well) – a little used rule applicable in only a handful of radio markets (see our more detailed explanation of that policy here).  The FCC’s Order implementing the Supreme Court decision is technically effective once published in the Federal Register, though such publication should just be a formality.

Not only did the Supreme Court decision undo the repeal of the 2017 rule changes, it also freed the FCC from any additional obligations to assess the impact of past rule changes on ownership diversity.  Thus, the FCC can once again take up its required review of the ownership rules.  Congress requires the FCC to conduct a Quadrennial Review of the ownership rules to determine if those rules are still necessary in order to serve the public interest.  The FCC started such a proceeding in 2018.  Comments and replies in that Quadrennial Review were filed in the first half of 2019.

The most significant issue posed by the 2018 Quadrennial Review was whether changes needed to be made to the radio ownership rules, as those rules have not been significantly revised since 1996.  The NAB offered a proposal that would end FCC enforcement of local ownership rules outside the Top 75 markets.  Other parties were supportive of that proposal, or asked for even greater relief, while others were concerned about such a sweeping relaxation of the rules.  While it seemed that a majority of the Commissioners at that time favored significant changes in the radio rules (see, for instance, then-Chairman Pai’s comments just before he left office, about which we wrote here), the Third Circuit decision, and the potential for the FCC to have to do historical research into the effects of past ownership changes on diversity, prevented them from acting.

The Quadrennial Review also asked other questions, including whether the FCC should adopt objective criteria to assess proposed combinations of two of the top 4 TV stations in any market.  Also on the agenda for review was whether the dual network rule, which prevents a company owning more than one of the Top 4 television networks, should be abolished.

Now, the new FCC has asked for an updating of the comments filed in 2019. In its Public Notice asking for updated comments, the FCC wants the public to reflect on technological and competitive changes that have occurred since 2019, and to also assess changes in the economy, including those caused by the pandemic, and discuss their impact on the broadcast industry.  Interested parties are also to review the record of the 2018 Quadrennial Review to see if other issues have been raised since 2019 and to discuss whether any of those issues warrant further scrutiny by the Commission.  As in any ownership proceeding, the FCC asks for studies that support any of the claims being made about the marketplace changes.

With comments due 30 days after the Public Notice is published in the Federal Register, and replies due 60 days after the publication, it may well be sometime in the Fall before the comment cycle for the updated comments runs its course.  Don’t look for any FCC action until 2022, presumably after a permanent Chair of the FCC is appointed and the vacant FCC seat is filled.  Many changes can occur in that time period – so be watching for developments in the coming months.

David Oxenford is MAB’s Washington Legal Counsel and provides members with answers to their legal questions with the MAB Legal Hotline. Access information here. (Members only access).

There are no additional costs for the call; the advice is free as part of your MAB membership. 

Jacobs Media Announces Public Radio Tech Survey 2021

Michigan-based Jacobs Media is planning its annual Public Radio Tech survey (PRTS) in conjunction with PRPD (Public Radio Program Directors Association). The survey will take place from late June through July.  .

“The goal of these PRTS studies is to help public radio stations better understand the impact change and disruption have on their operations and help them strategically navigate the digital waters to maximize effectiveness, build strategies, communicate to staff and set priorities,” Jacobs Media said in a statement.

For public radio stations that focus on music, PRTS 2021 will continue to provide direction into how radio is used by consumers. For public radio in general, PRTS 2021 will examine and track the online habits of public radio audiences.

For a small fee, participating stations/networks will receive in-depth information and will also be able to attend an executive summary presented via webinar.

For details on registration and fees, go here. The deadline for registration is Friday, June 18.  Questions can be answered by Elnora Lowe at Jacobs Media: (248) 353-9030.

NAB’s Service to America Award Special Offered to Stations

For the second year, The Celebration of Service to America Awards will return as a broadcast radio and television special
to premiere on July 10, 2021, at 7 p.m. ET. In partnership with Trailer Park Group, Disney Media Networks and Nielsen, the NAB Leadership Foundation will provide a broadcast-quality pre-recorded special showcasing excellence in community service from local radio and television stations throughout the country.  In Michigan, Alpha Media’s WSGW-AM (Saginaw) is a 2021 finalist.

The program includes stories announcing our winning stations to highlight the important role local broadcasting plays in communities.

The NAB invites stations to join their distribution network by offering clearances on stations nationwide. In celebration of all broadcasters’ community service, the Celebration of Service to America Awards special is available with a 30-day clearance window and will air on multiple stations in each market.

As a part of the distribution network, the NAB is asking stations to consider multiple airings of this show and commit to airing a minimum of 15 promotional spots two weeks before the scheduled air dates. The NAB Leadership Foundation will provide the promotional spots. As a radio broadcast partner, we ask for clearance on your local station and website during the 30-day window, starting on July 10, 2021, at 7 p.m. Eastern Time.

Stations will receive:

  • Family friendly, original programming to air on your station at no cost.
  • Local advertising revenue with a 7/7 split, providing seven minutes of local advertising and/or promotional time to share the story of your station’s community service.
  • Greater exposure to the vital role your stations play in local communities.

The program will include the presentation of the Corporate Leadership Award, the Service to America Leadership Award and feature messages of support from celebrities and members of Congress, all of whom will highlight the importance of the broadcast industry to the public.

The NAB Leadership Foundation is committed to building a more bright, diverse and innovative future for broadcasting. This event will reach a broad audience and help the Foundation showcase the importance of local radio and television with your help.

For more information, please contact NAB Leadership Foundation Director of Development Tim Dotson at [email protected] or President Michelle Duke at [email protected].

Darrin Rockcole Returns to WILX

Darrin Rockcole

Former WILX-TV Chief Meteorologist, Darrin Rockcole, who retired from the station in June of 2020, is returning on a freelance basis. Rockcole will be working as Weekend Meteorologist on News 10 Today Weekend Edition 6 a.m.  – 8 a.m., News 10 at 6 p.m., and News 10 at 11 p.m. “We appreciate Darrin helping cover weekends this summer, and fill in for vacations,” said WILX General Manager Debbie Petersmark, “There’s nobody better we could have asked for!”

Rockcole, who says he misses forecasting the weather for a TV audience, is happy to help. “I’m looking forward to being able to fill in where needed and deliver Mid-Michigan the weather forecast again” said Rockcole.

“Our viewers know Darrin, and they have missed him,” said WILX News Director Mike Schram, “He’s one of the area’s most trusted and accurate meteorologists and we’re excited to have Darrin rejoin the News 10 team.”

The News 10′s Weather Authority team currently consists of longtime trusted evening meteorologist Andy Provenzano, along with meteorologist Justin Bradford bringing you the weather every weekday morning.

Rockcole returned to the station to fill-in on the station’s early morning news June 10-11.  His new regular weekend duties begin this weekend.

PILOT Opening Application Window for 2021 Innovation Challenge

Challenge winners will showcase working prototype
at 2021 NAB Show in Las Vegas

Proposal deadline set for 5 p.m. ET on July 9

PILOT, the NAB’s technology innovation initiative, will be accepting submissions for the PILOT Innovation Challenge through 5 p.m. ET on July 9. The program will provide mentorship and promotion to winning proposals, along with an opportunity to demonstrate their products at NAB Show in Las Vegas, October 9-13, 2021.

This year’s challenge is seeking startups and growing companies providing solutions to some of the key challenges and opportunities facing broadcasters over the next two to three years. The challenge is specifically seeking products or prototypes that are focused on the following areas:

  • Edge technologies that drive new revenue opportunities for broadcasters, such as through geo-targeted content, location-based advertising, accurate audience measurement and augmented experiences;
  • Technologies that enhance broadcast journalism to help viewers and listeners get more from their most trusted source of local news, including tools to better aggregate and verify crowd-sourced news reports, enhancements to news-gathering technologies such as drones, or avatar news anchors to deliver personalized updates on a myriad of topics; and
  • In-vehicle technologies that deliver more value out of broadcasting, including technologies that enhance the in-car experience for radio listeners, as well as technologies that harness the mobile reception capabilities of the NextGen TV standard to deliver even more rich data services or back-seat entertainment.

“The Innovation Challenge offers a platform for developing technologies that will help broadcasters better serve their audience, while providing emerging companies a showcase for their cutting-edge products,” said PILOT Executive Director John Clark. “We are excited for this year’s program to explore the ideas and innovations that will open up new revenue streams, strengthen local journalism and enrich broadcasting’s relationship with the car.”

Individuals, teams, companies, academic institutions and nonprofit organizations are eligible to apply subject to the Challenge’s official rules of participation. Up to 10 finalists will be selected by a panel of industry experts by early August, with up to three winning proposals being notified by September 1. Participants can review the judging criteria on the PILOT website.

Three winners will be selected to receive relevant mentorship, feedback, numerous opportunities to engage with broadcasters and a trip to the annual NAB Show, held October 9-13, 2021 in Las Vegas. They will be provided exhibit space in the “Startup Loft” to demonstrate their prototype to potential customers, investors and partners.

The deadline to apply is July 9 at 5 p.m. ET.

PILOT is a coalition of innovators, educators and advocates dedicated to advancing broadcast technology and cultivating new media opportunities. PILOT propels broadcast television and radio into the future. It provides a platform for innovation, an engine for incubation, a venue for testing new technologies and a forum for broadcaster education. Learn more at www.nabpilot.org.

Cadillac-Based TV Network NewsNet Wins National Award

NewsNet, America’s first 24/7 news headline diginet, was recognized last week for its exceptional news promotion efforts at this year’s national Broadcast Production Awards.

The network, which is based in Cadillac but broadcasts over-the-air in more than 50 markets across the country, was awarded for the “Best Promotional Spot for News or Sports” for its creatively produced “Photos: News” promo, which made heavy use of a parallax effect to generate a creative and effective news promo in the midst of the pandemic – a time when shooting fresh promotional content was difficult.

“Without the ability to obtain new footage and gather behind-the-scenes clips, we had to get creative,” said Remington Hernandez, who conceptualized, produced and edited the promo, “Focusing on our key coverage areas, utilizing strong photos and playing off our ‘More News, More Often’ slogan was exactly the approach we needed to create an effective promo amid the pandemic.”

Most winning entries in the Broadcast Production Awards involved networks that have been broadcasting for decades, such as CBS News, ESPN and Telemundo, with NewsNet standing out as a new player in the industry.

“Many northern Michigan residents know NewsNet as their local 24/7 news channel – but they’re not aware that we broadcast national news to the entire country from the same studios in Cadillac that we use to bring them their local news,” said NewsNet President Eric Wotila, “We’re honored by the award we received this week, which reenforces that you don’t have to be based in New York or Los Angeles or Atlanta to compete on a national level in the TV industry.”

NewsNet, launched in January 2019, follows a traditional “news wheel” format providing a quick look at the headlines every half hour, and has stayed away from the talk and opinion-based programming that has become common on most 24-hour news channels. The rapidly growing network is available in approximately 50 markets nationwide – including New York, Los Angeles, Chicago and dozens more.

The network’s award-winning promo can be seen here: https://youtu.be/E1vSYVCNhR4

How Your Radio Station Can Run a Virtual Job Fair Using Remo

By: Seth Resler
Jacobs Media Strategies

As the country reopens in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic, one of the biggest challenges for local businesses is finding qualified employees. If your radio station can help local businesses overcome this hurdle, you stand a good chance of converting them into advertising clients.

Let’s look at how your station could host a virtual job fair using the Remo conference platform. Of all the conference platforms I have used in the last year, Remo has stood out as the best when it comes to facilitating virtual networking. In other words, it excels at enabling strangers to meet each other and find ways to collaborate — precisely the sort of thing you would want to happen at a job fair.

Remo accomplishes this through two modes: The first is Presentation Mode, which is the basic webinar-with-a-chat-box-on-the-side functionality that you see in many other conference platforms. The second mode, Conversation Mode, is what makes the networking possible. In Conversation Mode, attendees see a floorplan of a ballroom, complete with numerous tables. Attendees can “sit down” at a table by double-clicking on it, at which point they are in a video conference with all they other attendees at that table. Attendees can move to another table at any time by double-clicking on a new table. This enables attendees to “work the room,” mingling from table to table, much like they would in real life.

Here’s how your radio station can use this platform to create a virtual job fair:

1. Set up an event in Remo.
Sign up for a Remo account and set up an event. At the very beginning, you really only need to set up the date, the time and the name of the event. You can go back and fill in the details — including adding the graphics, videos and sponsors — later.

The key to this event is that we’re going to allow employers to purchase virtual tables at the job fair where they can talk with potential employees.

Set your event to private, as you want people to register for it through your website, not through a Remo form.

While Remo is fairly intuitive, it’s natural to feel intimidated at first. I recommend hosting a practice event before the real job fair to get the hang of it.

2. Set up a landing page and registration form for employers.
On your radio station’s website, create a page where employers can register to participate in the job fair. To do this, you’ll need to use a form-building app, such as Formstack or Gravity Forms. Here is some of the information you may want to collect from employers when they register:

Number of tables that they want to purchase
List of positions they are hiring for
Company description
Company logo
Link to company website
Link to short (<1 minute) recruitment video (we’re going to charge employers extra to show this video — see below)
Billing contact info
You can collect payment through the online form or you can bill the employers after the job fair.

You will need your registration form to pass data to other apps. First, it will need to pass the email addresses of the registrants to Remo. The best way to do this is to use Zapier to set up a “zap” to pass the data. Here’s more info on how to connect Formstack to Remo or Gravity Forms to Remo.

Additionally, you will want to pass the information from the employers to the software that you use to manage clients and potential clients. This may be an email service provider such as Mailchimp or Constant Contact, a CRM such as Salesforce, or a marketing automation tool like Hubspot.

Once this page is set up, your sales team can start recruiting local businesses to participate.

3. Send up a landing page for job seekers.
We’re not going to charge listeners to attend the job fair. On your radio station’s website, create a separate registration page for people who are looking for employment. This page will feature a different registration form. You will want to collect the same basic information that you collect when listeners join your station’s email database.

This form should also pass email addresses to Remo. Additionally, it should pass the email addresses to your station’s email database. Note that these email addresses should be added to your station’s listener database, not its customer database.

Give this landing page an easy-to-remember vanity URL, such as WKRP.com/jobfair, and add a link to this page to your website’s main menu.

4. Promote the job fair.
You know how to do this: use your radio station’s airwaves, email database, text message database, social media accounts, and other marketing channels to drive listeners to the landing page for job seekers.

5. Finish setting up your event.
Now we can go back into Remo and set up all the remaining details. I won’t go through all the settings here; instead, familiarize yourself with Remo by hosting a practice event.

During the event, each employer will have a representative stationed at a table to talk to recruits, so we’ll want to name a table after each participating employer. Note that you don’t set the table names in the event’s settings; instead, enter the event and double-click on each table’s name to rename it.

Some of the employers have paid extra to have their recruitment videos shown at the event. Edit together a compilation of these recruitment videos. Depending on the length, you may want to create multiple compilation videos. We’re going to show these compilations in Presentation Mode during the fair. I recommend having one of your on-air personalities pre-record a video introduction to these compilation videos so you don’t have to go “live” in Presentation Mode at all during the job fair. This will make the event even easier to run.

6. Email instructions to employers and job seekers.
Remo’s built-in email functionality doesn’t currently allow for a lot of customization, so I usually turn it off and send more specific emails with another tool. You can use whichever tool is best suited to you — your formbuilder’s autoresponders, your email service provider or plain ol’ Microsoft Outlook. In any event, you’ll want to send different emails to the two different types of providers, but both of these should steer participants to a list of equipment requirements and encourage people to test their gear ahead of time to make sure it’s compatible with the Remo platform. Here’s a webpage we set up at Jacobs Media to help participants get the most out of Remo.

7. Host the job fair.
Once the event is set up, running it is fairly easily — especially because the presentations are pre-recorded. There’s some basic logistics to execute, such as firing off announcements and handling anybody who experiences technical issues, but you should be able to spend most of the event mingling.

8. Send follow up emails.
After the event is over, send follow-up emails to all the attendees. In the email to job seekers, include contact information about all of the employers that participated so people can reach them.

These are the basic steps for setting up a job fair using the Remo platform. Naturally, the devil is in the details, so you’ll want to give yourself enough time to familiarize yourself with the platform and host a practice event. If you want help, feel free to reach out to me. That’s what I’m here for.

For more assistance on digital or social media, contact MAB Member Services at [email protected] or 1-800-968-7622.

Editor’s Note: The views and opinions of this article do not necessarily reflect those of the MAB. Contact the MAB for information on the MAB’s official editorial policy.